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Full text of "Political Science Of The State"

POLITICAL SCIENCE.
from a king on any pretext whatever, they were all together
openly bribed by this offer, if they accepted it, which thus
would be of all things most unlawful and confessedly shame-
ful "   These and other arguments led the assembly to reject
the gift   Still another passage, in which Polybius (xxviii., 7)
speaks of a general having spent a considerable sum of money
on his office, shows that he had small pay or none at all.
All the cities were equal in having one vote each, as every
nation belonging to the Amphictyonic council
Equality of mem-                             f     °                .        . .
bers of the league. jiaci two each. Probably this was a common
rule in Greek confederations, which the fear of the predomi-
nance of a large member would naturally suggest. It was also
necessary, in order to prevent the citizens of the place where
the meeting was held from outvoting those of many cities
put together, and lest cabals for a particular object should call
together the partisans of certain local schemes in great force.
It was originally no very unequal method of obtaining ex-
pression of the general will, for there was no such large dif-
ference of population between the Achsean towns as to make
it appear oppressive, and when the league was enlarged, the
new members accepted it for such as it was.
4. The magistrates of the league were, a general at the head
Magistrates of of affairs, ten demiurgi, also called vaguely
league.              archoiitcs, whom Mr. Freeman calls the general's
ten ministers, a secretary, an under-general, and a master of
horse,—if indeed these two latter officers had anything to do
with state affairs, and were not rather confined to military
duties. What favors this latter supposition in regard to the
general-in-chief is that when he died, the last preceding
officer of the same name took his place. The relation of
thei ten demiurgi to the general does not clearly appear.
The number ten points to the times of the formation of the
league, when there were but ten cities, but Jt is by no means
certain that the ten were always afterwards selected from the
early members of the body. They seem to have had a very
important part in proceedings, and were naturally chosen at
the same elections with the other officers. That they, to-